Top 10 Programming Languages You Must Learn in 2023

Discover the top 10 programming languages essential for 2023, empowering developers with skills vital for innovation and industry relevance.

What is programming?

A programming language is a man made-language that may be used to command the actions of a machine, like a computer. Like human languages, programming languages are controlled by syntactic and semantic principles that determine their structure and meaning. Though many languages are similar, each has its own unique characteristics. A programmer writes the source code in a text editor or integrated development environment after learning the language’s guidelines, syntax, and structure (IDE). The programmer then frequently compiles the code into a language that the computer can comprehend. Scripting languages that don’t need a compiler run the script through an interpreter.

The best Programming tools to use in 2023

JavaScript and Python, two of the most popular start-up languages, are in high demand. Backend frameworks based on Python, such as Django (Python), Flask (Python), and NodeJS, are used by the majority of startups (JavaScript). They are also thought to be the best programming languages for beginners.

The most popular programming languages in demand in 2023 are listed below.

1. JavaScript

JavaScript is a Text-based programming language known as JavaScript that can be used to create interactive web pages on both the client and server sides. In contrast to HTML and CSS, which give web pages structure and appearance, JavaScript adds interactive components that keep users interested. Web browsers and web-based apps tend to use JavaScript the most. The use of JavaScript, however, extends beyond the Web to embedded hardware controls, servers, and software. JavaScript is used listed below.

1. Adding interactive behavior to webpages.

JavaScript enables users to communicate with web pages. There are a few examples below, however, there are virtually no limitations to what you can accomplish using JavaScript on a web page:

  • You can display or hide additional information by clicking a button.
  • A button’s color changes as the mouse moves over it.
  • Scroll through the carousel of images on the page.
  • Panning through a picture in and out
  • A website’s audio and video playback, a countdown or timer, animated graphics, and other features.

2. Making web and mobile games

Web and mobile app developers can make use of JavaScript frameworks. JavaScript frameworks are groups of JavaScript libraries that offer pre-written code for common programming features and tasks, basically serving as a framework for creating websites and web apps.

3. Server-side development

Constructing web servers, and creating server software Developers can use JavaScript to build basic web servers and Node.js to build back-end facilities in addition to webpages and apps.

4. Game Development

Games played in browsers can also be made with JavaScript. These are great resources for novice developers to improve their JavaScript expertise.

Why choose JavaScript?

There are a lot of reasons why web developers like JavaScript over other programming languages, besides the limitless potential. JavaScript is the sole programming language supported by web browsers. The most popular programming language is JavaScript. There is a low entry point to start. Learning this language is fascinating.


  • simple to understand and use
  • is utilized all over the internet
  • immediately executable within client-side browsers and reduces the strain on the web server.


  • Inconsistent browsing
  • Web debugging can be inherently difficult.
  • Everyone can always see the code because JavaScript is public.

Required Skills

The structure and content of web pages are defined by HTML and CSS.

Annual Salary


Top 3 Frameworks

  • Angular – The release of Angular 15 occurred in November 2022. It is considered the best JavaScript framework for creating single-page apps, or SPAs. Since Google supports Angular, you can rely on it because it has all the necessary features.
  • React – This best JS framework is provided by a well-known tech company. The most recent version of React, which was introduced by Facebook six years ago, was just published. It is very close to Angular, but in recent years, it has surpassed the Google framework in almost every way. It is less resource-intensive, more adaptable, and less unreliable after updates. If required, React can be combined with other libraries.
  • Vue – A modern, forward-thinking MVVM system, vue.js maximizes the benefits of incremental adoption. One of the best JavaScript libraries, Vue js, has been producing interactive UI components that are small and simple to modify. It offers data-reactive components via a simple and adaptable API. Smaller tasks can quickly be finished before moving on to bigger ones.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • The server-side load is decreased because JavaScript code fragments can be handled on the client side rather than the server. The processing of the JavaScript codes on a website utilizes the user’s system resources.
  • Since JavaScript has become one of the most popular languages, many potent frameworks based on JS feature ready-to-use and readily available code. These codes are straightforward to comprehend and simple to debug. By 2023, JavaScript systems will have new features that improve efficiency and reduce time spent on tasks.
  • JavaScript executes various code segments as an event-based programming language in reaction to a user clicking a button or moving the mouse. None of the code is initialized at the time the webpage starts. This guarantees that other features are displayed without lag and that your website loads promptly.

2. Python

In order to create websites, software components, and applications as well as deal with Data Science, AI, and ML technologies, exceptional Python programmers are in high demand today, and all of the major corporations are looking for them.

Despite the fact that more Python programmers are needed because of the language’s use in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and other sectors, there is a serious lack of them during the time that we are creating this tutorial in 2022. Procedural, object-oriented, and functional languages are just a few of the programming paradigms that Python offers.

The design philosophy of Python emphasizes functionality by using a lot of indentation. Python-related employment typically pays £67,500 annually

Why choose Python?

Python is a script that is easy to read and comprehend. As a result, any obstacles are simple for the inventor to overcome. This programming technology is open and free. Developers have access to it and can share, copy, and alter it.


  • Adaptable
  • Simple to read
  • Intuitive.
  • Highly respected official talks and publications.


  • It doesn’t start with the basics of programming.
  • Speed is limited
  • Run time error

Required Skills

Fixing issues and thinking abstractly

Annual salary


Top 3 Frameworks

  • Django – Developers can rapidly create complex code and apps using the free, open-source Python framework Django. High-quality web apps can be created with Python by web developers.
  • CherryPy – A quick, reliable, and simple Python web programming framework is CherryPy. It is open-source and is compatible with any functional Python system. You can access data and create templates using any technology thanks to the CherryPy web platform. It is capable of performing all tasks that a web platform can do, including sessions, file uploads, static, cookies, etc.
  • Pyramid – Pyramid is a framework that developers can use to create both complicated projects and important web applications. Because of its openness and measurable quality, even seasoned Python writers value it highly.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • Improved error notifications, and more detailed tracebacks
  • Faster code processing as a result of the Faster CPython project’s extensive work
  • Groups for tasks and exceptions that make dealing with asynchronous code easier

3. Go Language

Go has a standard library, package management, static typing, testing support, and platform independence, to name a few. The Go standard library is built on the use of distributed packages. Go will handle both user-based and external package management support through the usage of package management.

To publish packages, a small number of commands can be used. By avoiding the issues with dynamically typed languages, static typing is a type system that ensures conversions and compatibility. Go also permits concurrent execution of unit tests and written code. The code can also be compiled on practically any platform because to Go’s modular architecture.

The average annual salary for a Go Developer in the US is $123,400 as of January 30, 2023. In case you need a quick pay estimator, that comes out to be roughly $59.33 per hour. This amounts to $10,283 a month or $2,373 per week.

Why should we choose the Go language?

Go has grown to be a very popular language for creating micro-services due to its quick startup time, low runtime overhead, and ability to operate without a virtual machine. Moreover, Go may be used for concurrent programming, which is a technique for carrying out several activities at once.


  • It is frequently referred to as a “minimalist” language
  • Code that is easy to understand.


  • You can end up writing more code than you would in other languages because there are no generics.
  • There is very little library support available
  • Go development community is not very vibrant or helpful.

Skills Required

If you already know at least one other programming language, learning it won’t be difficult; otherwise, persistence and a willingness to learn are needed.

Annual salary


Top 3 Frameworks

  • Gin – one of the Top Golang Frameworks in 2023, is excellent for building scalable and modular online applications. Although it provides an API similar to Martini, it offers up to 40 times the performance. It enables the creation of scalable and modular web apps.
  • Beego – The second-most well-liked Golang framework on our ranking, Beego, enables quicker creation of REST APIs, web applications, and backends. It is primarily appropriate for enterprise-grade applications and is focused more on them. Beego is frequently compared to Django in Python and also keeps almost all of Go’s characteristics, such as struct encapsulation and interfaces. It is a full-featured MVC framework with its own modules and an integrated Bee Tool that aids in identifying code changes, and it is not constrained by any third-party installations.
  • Echo – Echo is yet another performance-focused, minimalist, and extensible Golang web platform, designed in particular for the development of micro-services. Echo is excellent for developing RESTFUL APIs, JSON web services, and APIs. You can use the Echo framework independently or in conjunction with other tools like Gin.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • Three additional capabilities -The unsafe package can now specify the SliceData, String, and StringData functions. Unsafe “provides facilities for low-level programming, including actions that violate the type system,” according to Go’s documentation.
  • Improved libraries- the core go library will have minor and improved updates
  • Go test – JSON has been improved, preventing the need for applications that use it to be updated.

4. Java

Developed in 1995, Java is a well-known programming language. It is owned by Oracle, and more than 3 billion devices use Java. It fulfills the following functions:

  • Apps for desktop PCs, Android apps in particular, mobile applications, and web-based applications
  • Servers for applications and websites
  • Access to the Games Database

As of January 26, 2023, the average Java Developer income in the US is $99,867, although the normal salary range is $84,530 to $112,615.

Why choose Java?

Java is simpler to write, compile, debug, and learn than other programming languages since it was created to be simple to use. It’s object-oriented, like Java. This enables the development of modular applications and code that is reused. Java works across all platforms.


  • it is most well-known and in high demand worldwide.
  • It is considered to be a fantastic starting point for learning to think like a programmer and developing coding skills.
  • You will be able to access and manipulate the most crucial computer features, including the file system, graphics, and sound, for any reasonably complex and contemporary software that can run on any operating system.


  • higher-level language, so there are many new terms to learn.
  • Complex codes
  • Requires memory space
  • Java can be sluggish and ineffective, especially when compared to more recent languages like Go.

Skills Required

Skills in problem-solving and understanding of the object-oriented framework.

Annual salary


Top 3 Frameworks

  • Spring – One of the most widely used Java frameworks is Spring, which is typically used to create enterprise-level apps. Unlike other options, this framework focuses on a number of program operation areas and improves them with a wide range of additional functionalities.
  • Vert.X – An open-source Java platform called Vert.X provides lots of room for growth. It reacts to every shift and occurrence in the system as a result of its reactivity, which is related to its asynchronicity quality. A Java program without blocking or multithreading can be made with the aid of this feature. It is a multilingual framework that works well with a variety of computer languages. It gained enormous popularity in the technical community as a result of its polyglottism.
  • Blade -A self-sufficient Java system known for its elegance, intuitiveness, productivity, and quickness is called Blade. The main goal of this instrument’s designers was to create a high-performance structure that is so simple to understand and use that it only takes one day to get the hang of it. You won’t need a lot of room or money to use Blade. Its primary goal is to protect data privacy with strong built-in security measures.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • Universal generics standardize how primitive and reference classes are handled in generic code.
  • Extent-local variables allow immutable data to be shared both within and between processes.
  • String templates make it easier to describe strings that contain values that are computed at runtime, which simplifies Java programming.

5. Kotlin

In 2016, JetBrains released Kotlin, a cutting-edge, popular programming language. Because it allows Java code (and libraries) to be used in Kotlin programs, one of the most popular programming languages, it has gained popularity.

Apps for mobile devices, particularly Android apps, server-side web development tools, and data science
In the USA, the typical annual income for an android Kotlin developer is $130,000, or $62.50 per hour.

Why choose Kotlin?

Programming in Kotlin is expressive and succinct, which minimizes frequent errors in code and makes it simple to integrate new code into already-existing projects. To take use of Kotlin’s best-in-class capabilities if you’re wanting to create an Android app, we suggest starting with it.


  • Adoption is quite simple
  • Less coding is required than in Java and other computer languages.
  • It is complete compatibility with Java.


  • Features no static keywords
  • Variable compilation speed.
  • Slow speed

Skills Required

Prior experience using programming languages, especially Java

Annual Salary


Top 3 Framework

  • Spring Boot – This framework is ideal for creating micro-services and web apps. It offers a wide range of features and capabilities, including testing, data access, and protection. The numerous libraries and tools provided by Spring Boot make it simple to create web apps.
  • Ktor – Another Kotlin web application platform is Ktor. JetBrains used Kotlin to write it. Adding and removing elements is possible with a modular design. It maintains your program efficient and lightweight. Your applications will consume less space with Ktor.
  • Koins – Koin is an entirely Kotlin-written DI framework for Kotlin writers. It is very helpful when developing a Kotlin program using the aforementioned libraries. Let’s say you are working with a Kotlin web application and Ktor is accessible. To handle your controllers, services, repositories, etc., you would need a DI framework. You would require Koin at this point. Before beginning to work with Koin, there are a few terminologies that we need to grasp.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • K2 encoder that is quicker.
  • An improved Editor built on K2.
  • Kotlin Multiplatform Mobile stable release.
  • Enhanced authoring tools for libraries.

6. PHP

PHP is a programming language that enables site designers to produce dynamic content that communicates with databases. PHP is largely used to develop web-based software applications. PHP is a server-side programming language with support for HTML. Dynamic content, databases, session tracking, and even the development of full e-commerce sites are all managed by it.

It works with numerous well-known databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Microsoft SQL Server. Once it is running, the MySQL server processes even the most sophisticated queries with enormous result sets quickly.

PHP Developer salaries presently vary from $67,500 (25th percentile) to $104,000 (75th percentile), with top earners (90th percentile) making $124,000 annually across the United States.

Why choose PHP?

PHP enables database interaction and dynamic content creation for web developers. The advantages of PHP’s simplicity, speed, and versatility have helped it become a mainstay in the field of online development.


  • An open-source.
  • It may be coupled with a variety of tools and is easy to produce.
  • Database connectivity is versatile and reasonably priced.


  • Losing popularity
  • Security errors
  • If it isn’t correctly optimized, PHP is a very slow language and can’t handle a lot of requests.

Skills Required

Easy if you have prior programming language skills, but quite basic for beginners.

Annual salary


Top 3 Frameworks

Laravel – Popular and comprehensive PHP framework Laravel is renowned for its elegant design. It is a good tool for customizing complicated applications because it has a tonne of features and built-in capabilities. User authentication, session administration, and caching are some of its features.
Codelgniter – A PHP system with a total size of less than 1.2 MB, CodeIgniter is compact. It guarantees quicker loading times and leaves your web server and apps with little trace. Due to its flexibility, CodeIgniter offers both MVC and non-MVC design techniques. While smaller teams or independent developers can write without using it, larger developer teams can accelerate the development process by using its MVC architecture.
Symfony – Symfony is a modular component-based PHP platform that offers exceptional flexibility. For your project, you can pick from more than 50 customizable PHP components. Instead of depending on the entire library if you only need a little assistance, you can pick and choose which modules to use.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • Unserialize() error handling improvement
  • Addition of new json_validate() function
  • Dynamic fetching of Class constant
  • Improved Date/Time Exceptions
  • New function in Randomizer class

7. C# Language

The name C# is pronounced, “C-Sharp.” It is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft and supported by the.NET Framework. Other well-known languages like C++ and Java are related to C#, which has its origins in the C family. The initial version was made available in 2002.

The most recent version, C# 11, was made available in November 2022. C# developers earn an average salary of between $80,000 and $105,000, with the top 86% earning over $160,000.

Why choose C#?

Programming in C# is incredibly flexible and simple to keep up with. Since C# programs must adhere to stringent rules for writing static codes, they are much simpler to modify and maintain than programs created in other programming languages.


  • It is quick
  • User-friendly
  • Object-oriented, update-able, scalable, compatible with other codes, open source, and has a vast library.


  • Due to its reliance on Microsoft, it is less flexible.
  • Does not support garbage collection
  • Not secure

Skills Required

Solid understanding of the basics of coding.

Annual salary


New Features To Expect in 2023

  • Using the record struct or read-only record struct statements, you can define value-type records. With the record class statement, you can now specify that a record is a reference type.
  • To tell the compiler that the directive pertains to all source files in the compilation, you can add the global modifier to any using directive. In a project, this is usually true of all source files.
  • When you override ToString in a record type in C# 10, you have the option to apply the sealed modifier. By sealing the ToString method, no derived record type’s ToString method will be created by the program. All derived record types must use the ToString method specified in a common parent record type thanks to a sealed ToString.

8. Swift

Swift is a very capable and approachable programming language for use with iOS, iPadOS, macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. Swift has cutting-edge capabilities that developers appreciate, and writing Swift code is interactive and exciting thanks to the succinct yet expressive syntax. Software written in Swift runs at lightning speed and is safe by design.

At, where everyone has access to the source code, a bug tracker, forums, and frequent development build. Swift is developed in an open environment. Swift is improved by a vast developer community that includes hundreds of external contributors in addition to Apple’s own employees. The average annual salary for a Swift Programmer in the United States as of January 29, 2023, is $102,947.

Why choose swift?

Swift checks arrays and integers for overflow, initializes variables before use, and efficiently manages memory. Additionally, developers can quickly spot any mistakes in the code, cutting down on debugging time and lowering the possibility of producing subpar code.


  • The learning curve is not too steep.
  • Clear syntax
  • Fewer lines of code, and increased speed compared to other programming languages.


  • Being a developing language, it offers little interaction with third-party applications
  • Has no support for earlier iOS releases.

Skills Required

No prior knowledge of programming languages is necessary; simply a willingness to follow tutorials, which are easily accessible.

Annual salary


New Features in 2023

  • For the forthcoming Swift 6 language mode, the Language Workgroup intends to put the finishing touches on anticipated language changes.
  • Build platforms that more tightly integrate with the Swift compiler, allowing developers more freedom in how they create Swift programs and resulting in more reliable builds.

9. R Language

Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman developed the free software and programming language R in 1993. R contains a sizable library of graphical and statistical techniques. Machine learning algorithms, linear regression, time series, and statistical inference are only a few examples.

For complex computational jobs, C, C++, and Fortran codes are preferable despite the fact that the majority of R libraries are written in R. Several major organizations, like Uber, Google, Airbnb, Facebook, and others, as well as academics trust R. With a typical income of $189,750, wages for candidates for this position range from a low of $160,000 to a high of $200,000.

Why choose R?

R provides a helpful environment for statistical computing and design and offers a broad range of statistics-related libraries. Additionally, since it’s helpful for importing and cleaning data, many quantitative researchers use the R programming language as a programming tool.


  • It is good to support for data management.
  • There are numerous programs available.
  • It has support for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS across multiple platforms
  • It is best for applications using machine learning.


  • It lacks fundamental security
  • Saves objects in physical memory which could be resource-intensive
  • It is slower than Matlab or Python.

Skills Required

It is simpler if you are already familiar with JavaScript or Python, but it is advised for those with a solid background in mathematics.

Annual salary


Top 3 Frameworks

  • Beakr – enables the creation and deployment of web services using R. Beakr is a reincarnation of Bart Smeets’s defunct jug package and is inspired by the minimal and incredibly extensible frameworks provided by Express.js and Flask. With a few key features we know we can count on at Mazama Science, it enables users to assign specific blocks of R code to individual URL routes accessed by various HTTP protocols (POST, GET, PUT, etc.).
  • Plumber – is a package that is managed by RStudio, giving it access to a wealth of resources and assistance. People who have R code with a clear API and want to make that API accessible as a web service are the target audience for the plumber package. Because of this, it is a great package for sharing existing R code. Not to mention that RStudio supports and maintains the program, so you can be sure of its widespread use and thorough documentation.
  • Ambiorix – New web foundation software is called Ambiorix. Even though it is still in development, John Coene, the creator, has already incorporated some useful extensions, like a command-line interface and web template generators.

10. Ruby

Ruby is a scripting language that was designed by Yukihiro Matsumoto, popularly known as Matz. It is compatible with several operating systems, including Windows, Mac OS, and numerous UNIX variants.
Ruby is similar to Smalltalk, Perl, and Python in certain ways. Perl, Python, and Smalltalk are examples of scripting languages. An object-oriented programming language is smalltalk.

Ruby is a perfect object-oriented programming language, much like Smalltalk. Smalltalk syntax is substantially more difficult to understand than Ruby syntax.

Remote Ruby on Rails developer pay ranges from $93,863 to $129,872+ in the United States.

Why choose Ruby?

Ruby is a helpful programming language that is primarily used to create web applications. It is frequently used to construct servers and handle data as well as for web scraping and crawling. Ruby on Rails is the top Ruby running platform.


• flexible.
• The syntax is considered to be easy to understand and write.
• Makes sure the right coding style is used.


• least commonly used.
• Little web hosting
• No flexibility

Skills Required

Reasoning abstractly and problem-solving and ability to visualize what application users want to see.

Annual salary


Top 3 frameworks

  • Ruby on Rails – The most well-liked Ruby web application platform is called Ruby on Rails. In reality, Ruby’s popularity didn’t really take off until RoR was made available. The worldwide support for RoR is strong, and its group is very active. For popular web application features, updated and new libraries and Rails gems are frequently made available.
  • Hanami – One of the newest Ruby tools on this list is Hanami. Because it is a batteries-included framework, it comes with all the required frameworks and other helpful components. Hanami, however, is more compact and quicker than Rails because of these specialised, compact frameworks.
  • Padrino – Built on Sinatra, one of the finest Ruby frameworks, Padrino is a fully functional web framework. By incorporating standard frameworks, helpers, and other features, it improves upon the Sinatra web library.

New Features to Expect in 2023

  • Right at the start of the year, Ruby released Ruby 3, which added new speed, concurrency, and static type features.
  • Because wrapping your programme for the App Stores will be simpler with turbo mobile native technologies, more people are paying attention to them.